luni, 29 noiembrie 2010

Irish Set Dancing in Constanta, Romania




My name is Ana BERBEC and during this school year, 2010 – 2011, I am a French teacher at “C. A. Rosetti” High school from Constanta, Romania. In 2003 I was a student during my last year at the “Ovidius” University, here, in Constanta, studying French and Turkish. During the second semester, at the end of January 2004, I left Constanta and Romania and went to Brest, France to study as a participant of the E.U. Erasmus Program. In March 2004, on the 17th of March, Saint Patrick to be more exact, (but I had no idea about Saint Patrick’s Day at that time) I met a group of dancers named “Blas Ceilteach”: a French association of people in love with Ireland and Irish Set Dancing who were dancing every Monday evening in an Irish pub named The Dubliner’s, Irish pub run by an Irish man, Joe. I’ve decided to join them and soon I became one of the best dancers, going to shows on stage to Plouarzel, Saint Mathieu, Loperhet, Relecq-Kerhuon, Plouzané, Lorient, Carhaix and, the best, at “Brest 2004”, The International Holiday of the Sea and the sailors. I was the strangest member of the group: with dark features and Romanian origins, speaking French with an accent and being a part of a French group who was representing Dun Laoghaire and Ireland. Since I came back to Constanta, Romania in 2005, I’ve kept having the dream of having my own group of dancers here, in Constanta. Last year I tried with younger pupils from Neptune (12 – 13 years old) and it was a success, so this year I decided I should give it a try with teenagers. I started two weeks ago with a group of 14 and the first dance I taught them was a reel. They seemed enthusiastic and they said they’d want to keep going, so I also want to teach them how to dance the hornpipe and the jig. But my highest ambition would be to make them dance the Baile Bhúirne Jig Set... We intend to study and to have the first demonstration of Irish Set Dances with an audience on the 17th of March, next year, in 2011. Our purpose, besides having fun and staying in a good shape through dances, will be to discover together - and also make others discover - the Irish culture through Irish dances and music as we will be the first and only Romanian group from Constanta dancing Irish dances.








Darie Madalin





Janca Cristian

joi, 25 noiembrie 2010

marți, 23 noiembrie 2010

Latu Cristian


A mai căzut o frunză
Din preabatrân arțar
Și s-a mai rupt o filă
Din al toamnei calendar.

Latu Cristian Clasa a XI-a E
Profesor coordonator: Ionescu Virginia

Șerban I.

Toamna a căzut,
Peste parcul mut.
Tainicule dor,
În zadar te alint.





Elev: Șerban I.

Profeosr coordonator: Virginia Ionescu

Boruz Mihai


Aramă-n frunzele căzute pe alei
Picioru-ţi mic, prin ele se-nfioară
Şi-mi ninge-n tîmple alb de ghiocei
Pastel de toamnă...




Elev: Boruz Mihai
clasa a-XI-a E

Profesor coordonator: Virginia Ionescu

Boruz Mihai



Clopoţel de vânt
Toamna mi te ia...

Vis stingher,
Lacrima de dor,
Strop de margarint.

Trandafirii mor,
Visurile mint.

ELEV: Boruz Mihai
Profesor coordonator: Virginia Ionescu

vineri, 19 noiembrie 2010

Natural beauty-Popescu Gabriela






The beautiful landscape of Romania that A. Russo resembles a fortress with its crown of mountains, surrounded by hills, valleys and plains hemmed south of the Danube, Prut east, north and west of the Tisza rivers converge, which eventually carries its waters into the Danube as all in a big collector.

The main rivers in our country: Olt, Mures, three three rivers, tributaries IOR peisasistice offer besides beauty, and many of the soil and subsoil wealth, coveted historically by many proud empires, which by fierce wars attacked "poor rich country" with a desire to enslave us!

Frumusetile naturii,

Minunatul relief al Romaniei pe care Alecu Russo o aseamana cu o cetate cu cununa sa de munti, inconjurata de dealuri, vai si campii tivite spre sud de fluviul Dunarea, spre est de Prut, spre nord si spre apus de rauri care converg in Tisa, care, in cele din urma isi poarta apele ,tot in Dunare ca intr-un mare collector.Principalele ape curgatoare din tara noastra: Oltul, Muresul, cele trei Crisuri, cu afluentii lor, ofera pe langa frumuseti peisgisistice, si numeroase bogatii ale solului si subsolului, ravnite de-a lungul istoriei de atatea mandre imperii, care prin razboaie crunte au atacat "saraca tara bogata" cu dorinta de a ne subjuga.
Vointa si dorul de libertate ale romanilor au triumfat; ne-am indoit ca un copac bantuit de furtuni, dar nu ne-am frant!

Elev: Popescu Gabriela

Cls a- XII-a B Grup Scolar C. A. Rosetti

Profesor ,Diriginte : Nicolae Cornelia

Caricatura-Livia Toader

Crisis in the Romania - Oeru Silviu

C

Crisis in the Romania - CIOBANU PAUL

ELEV : CIOBANU PAUL

CLASA: XII –a B

LICEU: C.A.ROSETTI

DIRIGINTE: NICOLAE CORNELIA

Crisis in the Romania

The world economic crisis was amplified on each day, and Romania start to feel it more and more economic recession, which economists from major global and fail to find an antidote. And the best this crisis will be felt in companies in Romania. Structural Funds are an ace up his sleeve to combat the economic crisis in Romania, but employment and increasing foreign debt will put sticks in the wheels of the national economy, I think analysts.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION -CILICHIDREANU ALINA – GIORGIANA

Elev : CILICHIDREANU ALINA – GIORGIANA

CLASA : XII – a B

LICEU: GRUP SCOLAR C.A.ROSETTI CONSTANTA

DIRIGINTE : NICOLAE CORNELIA

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

We can say that the environment should be adapted and arranged to meet the needs of individuals, which involves taking the nature of their processing resources and to serve the population.

This addict knows a high reciprocity due to the fact that are adapted to the environment more or less and its protection - as a necessity of survival and progress -is a matter of major a nowadays insuarance for social evolution.

Accordingly , it is necessary to preserve environmental quality ,reducing negative effects of human activity with its implications.

Pollution and depletion of deposits in amounts of renewable materials and rhythms beyond the possibilities of their recovery naturally produced serious imbalances to the planetary ecosystem.

The environment protection has been a major problem of the last decade discussed at a world wide level , giving birth to serious debates between the developed contries and also the developing ones.This thing led to the birth of some international organizations which have as main objectives the adoption of solutions fot the decrease of pollution and the increase of the environmental quality level as a whole.

Oraşul meu iubit de Andrei CARLOVA

Şase păsări sunt pe cer
Una spune:
Lasă-mă să te privesc Constanţa
Oraş cu magic interior,
Oraş de lacrimi şi de dor.
Cine oare e ca tine?
Ce ascunzi atât de bine!
Un mister sălăşluit,
Ce n-a fost descoperit,
O veche legendă ne îndrumă
Spre portul mării se adună.
La răscruce se-ntalnesc,
Ele pleacă încetişor
Navigând mai tărişor
Navele vin şi se duc
Parcă portu-i un haiduc
Ce-şi extinde-n depărtare
Existenţa sa cea mare.



ANDREI CARLOVA
clasa a-XIII-a C

joi, 18 noiembrie 2010

TOBĂ ALEXANDRU



Frumuseţea naturii poate da fericire sufletului căci între natură, fericire şi liniste sufletească exista o armonie totală,greu de diluat.Contemplu un colţ de natură şi simt ca fericirea imi curge prin vene….e linişte…e tot ce-şi poate dori un suflet dezamăgit!

ELEV TOBĂ ALEXANDRU, DIN CLASA A X-A


Nenorocirea poate fi o punte spre fericire./ proverb persan

In fericire, ca si in nefericire, caracterul omului ales ramane acelasi./proverb persan

Fericirea şi nenorocirea nu au poartă; omul insă o caută mereu./ proverb chinez



PROVERBE CULESE DE PROF. RUSU DOINA






marți, 16 noiembrie 2010

Papuc Cosmin ( clasa a XIII-a C)

My name is Papuc Costin. and i'm sudent in class 13.c (seral) .That evening. day constant work in the shipyard as a welder CO2. Weld platform for building ships. I like jazz concerts. I admire Johnny Raducanu. Because our country is going through a crisis period tickets are expensive and did not allow me to go to the show but, i listen to jazz concerts on youtube manny artists like Johnny Raducanu, Aura Urziceanu etc.

Historical












Dor de Eminescu








Patriotic Songs

Patriotic Songs




Patriotic Songs

















Romania



http://www.romanianmonasteries.org/







PRESIDENT OF ROMANIA: TRAIAN BASESCU


----------------------------------------------------------------
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, north of the Balkan Peninsula, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea.[4] Romania shares a border with Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova to the northeast, and Bulgaria to the south.


*
The Constitution of Romania is based on the Constitution of France's Fifth Republic[98] and was approved in a national referendum on December 8, 1991.[98] A plebiscite held in October 2003 approved 79 amendments to the Constitution, bringing it into conformity with European Union legislation.[98] The country is governed on the basis of multi-party democratic system and of the segregation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers.[98] Romania is a parliamentary democratic republic where executive functions are held by prime minister. The president is elected by popular vote for maximum two terms, and since the amendments in 2003, the terms are five years.[98] He appoints the prime minister, who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers (based at Victoria Palace).[98] The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament (residing at the Palace of the Parliament), consists of two chambers – the Senate with 140 members, and the Chamber of Deputies with 346 members.[98] The members of both chambers are elected every four years under a system of party-list proportional representation.[98]




*

luni, 15 noiembrie 2010

CABINET















Emil Boc, Prime-minister


PERSONAL DATA
Date of birth: September 6th, 1966;
Marital status: married;

PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND
Current office: Prime Minister of Romania (as of December 2008)
Reader PhD (as of 2000)
Faculty of Political Sciences and Public Administration, "Babeş-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca;
Faculty of Law, "Babeş-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca;
As of 1996, Lawyer – Cluj Bar;

Former office:
1991 - 1993, Teacher, "Gheorghe Lazăr" Pedagogical High – School Cluj-Napoca;
1993 - 1994, Junior Teaching Assistant, Department of Contemporary History and political sciences;
1994 - 1997, Teaching Assistant - Faculty of Political and Administrative Sciences;

TaughtCourses:
Constitutional law and political institutions (Faculty of Law, "Babeş-Bolyai" University)
Romanian Political System (Faculty of Political Sciences, "Babeş-Bolyai" University)
Public Freedoms in Romania (Faculty of Political Sciences, "Babeş-Bolyai" University)

EDUCATION
2000, PhD in political sciences and political philosophy, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca;
PhD student in constitutional law and political institutions;
Member of the American Association of Political Sciences since 1994, and of the Romanian Society of Political Sciences since1999;
1991, Faculty of History and Philosophy
1995, Faculty of Law

POLITICAL CAREER
As of December 22nd, 2008, Prime Minister of Romania;
As of December 2007, President of the Democratic Liberal Party;
December 2004 - December 2007, President of Democratic Party (PD);
2003 - 2004, President Executive of the Democratic Party;
2004 - 2009, Mayor of Cluj-Napoca Municipality;
2003, Vice Chairperson of the Committee in charge of the revision of Romania’s Constitution;
2003 - 2004, Leader of PD Parliamentary Group, Chamber of Deputies;
2001 - 2004, Vice Chairperson of the Legal Committee, Chamber of Deputies;
2000 - 2004, Member of the Chamber of Deputies;
2000 - 2004, President of BPJ Cluj (County Standing Bureau);

TRAINING STAGES AND SCHOLARSHIPS ABROAD
- January - July 1992, scholarship in socio- psychological sciences to University of Nottingham, England;
- February 1994 - June 1994, visiting scholar of political sciences and public administration, University of Pittsburgh, USA;
- January - April 1996, Visiting scholar of political sciences and public administration, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA;
- February - March 1997, Tempus scholarship to Universite Libre de Bruxelles
- February - March 1998 - visiting scholar at Michigan State University, East Lancing, within "Michigan Political Leadership "/ "Transylvania Political Leadership" Programs;
- April - May 1999, Tempus scholarship to Universite Libre de Bruxelles.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH:
Political institutions and constitutional procedures in Romania, Accent Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca, 2007;
Public Freedoms, Accent Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca, 2001;
Grant Awards:
- "If it's News to You, It's News to Me", grant awarded by IREX, Washington D.C., 1997;
- "Are Our Leaders Reponsive?" grant awarded by IREX, Washington D.C., 1999;

Works published abroad:
La Romania e un regime semipresidenziale ?, in Adriano Giovannelli, Il semipresidenzialismo:dall 'arcipelago europeo al dibattito italiano, Ed. G.Giappichelli Torino, 1998;
The control of the constitutionality of laws in Romania, in Journal of Constitutional Law in Eastern and Central Europe, volume 2, no. 1/1995;

Works in volume:
Comparative perspective on Central and East – European constitutional systems, in "Studies and research in the field of socio- human sciences” volume, Romanian Academy Cluj-Napoca Branch, Argonaut Publishing House, Cluj-Napoca, l996.p. 1-10

Courses andseminar notebooks for student use:
Compared parliamentary and presidential systems, Cluj-Napoca, 1996;
World political leaders, seminar notebook on compared political systems, Faculty of Political Sciences, Cluj, 1997;

Specialtyarticles:
1. Ordinances issued by Ciorbea Cabinet - Necessity and constitutionality, in “Sphere of Politics " no. 51/1997;
2. Current changes in the evolution of the separation of powers’ principle (I), in Studia Universitatis, Historia Series, no 1-2/ 1994;
3. Bureacracy and state in "Standard International" Review, social – political research review, Cluj Napoca, no. 2/1996;
4. Administrative power – a new power in the state powers’ system, in "Studia" Sociology-Politology Series, no. 1-2/1994;
5. Current changes in the evolution of the separation of powers’ principle (II), in Studia Universitatis, Historia Series, and no. 1- 2 / 1996;
6. Comparative analysis of the parliamentary and presidential system, in "Studia", Sociology – Politology Series, no. 1-2/1995;
7. Observations on US local government , in "Studia ", Political Sciences Series, no. 1/1996.
8. Freedom of expression and slander committed through press, in "Studia" Journalistic Series no.1/1997;
9. Parliamentary regime, in "Studia", Political Sciences Series, no. 1/1996
10. La Roumanie - EST-ELLE UN modele semi-presidentiel, in "EAST" Electronic Journal of the Faculty of political, no.l/1998;
11. Particularities of the Romanian semi- presidential model, in "Standard International" Review, social – political research review, no. 1 /1999;
12. Legislative delegation in the Romanian Constitutional System, in Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, no. 1(2) / 1999;
13. Uninominal voting system - solution for greater accountability of the political class, "22" Review no.11, March 13-19, 2001;

Conferences and addresses:
1."Romania – the analysis of general development in Central and Eastern Europe" – address at the "Post revolutionary Eastern Europe. Illusions and disillusions" Conference organized by Association des Etats Generaux des Etudiants de l'Europe, Bratislava, December 27th, – 31st, 1993 and published in the Association Bulletin, 1994;
2."Contemporary Politics of Romania" – conference held at University of Pittsburgh, February 20, 1994;
3."Constitutional System of Romania. Semi-presidential system" –address at the University of Pittsburgh, April 1994;
4."Constitution of Romania and powers’ separation ", conference held at the International Symposium organized by Cluj Greek- Catholic Teology Faculty and Katholische Hochschuljugend Osterreich Wien, Cluj-Napoca, April 17-22,1995;
5. Controversial problems of current Romanian democracy, address at the Political Sciences Debate, Cluj-Napoca, December 7-9, 1995
6. Romania before the 1996 Parliamentary and Presidential Elections, conference held at University of Virginia (February 1996) and University of Pittsburgh (March 1996);
7. Comparative perspective on Central and East – European constitutional systems, address at the Annual Scientific Session of Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca branch, May 17-18, 1996;
8. Panel Chair at the "Century Retrospectives on Eastern Europe" section to the "The Twelfth Annual Graduate Symposium on Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies, University of Virginia, March, 29-30, 1996;
9. Critical Perspective on Central and East European Constitutional Systems, address at the Romanian – American Symposium on political analysis issues, May 28-29th, 1996, Cluj-Napoca;
10. Public administration concept, address at the National Symposium of Public Administration, organized by the National League For European Integration (LINE), Cluj-Napoca, October 8th, 1996;
11. Powers’ separation mechanism illustrated in the Constitution of Romania, address at " Youngsters in contact with democracy” Seminar, project financed by EU PHARE program for democracy , Cluj-Napoca, Army House, October 19th, 1996;
12. Centralization and decentralization in local public administration, address at the" Youngsters in contact with democracy” Seminar, project financed by EU PHARE program for democracy , Cluj-Napoca, Army House, January 20, 1997;
13. Powers’ separation principle illustrated in the new Central and East – European Constitutions, address at the annual scientific session of the Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca branch, legal department, April 24-26, 1997;
14. Comparative Perspective on Semi-presidential model. Critical perspective on Romanian semi presidential model, address at the "Transition politique et developement institutionel" conference organized by Bucharest Faculty of Political Sciences in cooperation Universite Libre du Bruxel!es, University of Genoa, Phanteon University of Athens and Universite Paris XII., Bucharest , March 11-14, 1997, about to be published in the "Transition politique et development institutionell" volume, Bucharest, 1997;
15. Romania - Semi-presidential model. Constitutional analysis of the 1991 Constitution, address at the International Congress of Romanian Studies, Cluj-Napoca, June 30, July 5th, 1997;
16. Freedom of speech and slander committed through press, address at the “Roma population’s image illustrated by Romanian press “Seminar, organized by the Institute for the Study of Bucharest Multiculturalism and Academic Research Centre of Cluj Political Sciences Faculty, Cluj-Napoca, July 18-19, 1997;
17. Particularities of the Romanian semi- presidential model. A Critical Perspective, address at the Political Sciences Debate, Cluj-Napoca, May 1998;
18. Peculiarity of administrative power in state powers’ system, address at the International Conference of public administration, organized by the Faculty of Political and Administrative Sciences, Cluj-Napoca, October 1998;
19. Critical perspective on Romanian political system, address at the National Conference of Political Sciences, Cluj-Napoca, October 1999;


http://www.gov.ro/emil-boc-prime-minister__l2a98267.html

Andrei Baciu










Janca Cristian










haiku-Cosmina Ifteni

început de septembrie...

pe leagăn

o pisică şi-o frunză .



Plimbări pe faleză ,

in depărtare

catarge deschise .



Toamnă timpurie ,

Umbrele de soare închise -

castele stricate.




haiku -Alina Bumbac


Printre ramuri de gutui

pisică neagră -

amurg in balans.



scuturând nucul ...

miorlăit .

pe jos nuci şi-o pisică .



joc cu ghemul de lână ,

apus de soare

răsfirat in vie .



gând de poet ,

răsărit şi-un strigăt de pescăruş

pe faleză ,

thoughts

Societate perfecta

As vrea sa traiesc

Printre oameni: 1. cu bun simt

2. mai intelepti

3. mai amabili

4. cu responsabilitati



Perfect society

I want to live

Through peoples: 1. with common sense

2. more wiser

3. more polite

4. with responsibilities

Cosmina Ifteni









Ciugulind clipe de viaţă...

Roţile scaunului

Duc amintirea

Unei copilării îngheţate



Picking moments of life ...

Wheels of a chair

Leading thought

A frozen childhood

Cosmina Ifteni


Crizanteme mov

Taina nopţii în petale

Numai stelele plâng



Purple chrysanthemums

Mystery of night in petals

Only the stars cry





traducere : Alina Bumbac

Cosmina Ifteni

Trandafiri la fereastră

Toamna picură printre frunze

Linişte şi armonie



Roses at the window

Autumn drop among leafs

Peace and harmony




traducere:Alina Bumbac

Alina Bumbac




Tinereţe departe
Alee plină de gânduri
Printre copaci
Numai strigătul clopotului



Youth far away

Alley full of thoughts

Among trees

Only a cry of a bell

Alina Bumbac

Cornul belşugului

Varsă în piaţă

Struguri şi mere

Nimic nu e gratis!



Wealth horn

Pour in the market

Grapes and apples

Nothing is free!

Alina Bumbac




Sentiment de prietenie,

Vrajbă este uitată

Clipele de tandreţe

Sunt respirate



Friendship feeling,

Feud is forgotten

Moments of tenderness

Are breathed

duminică, 14 noiembrie 2010

DESPRE CONSTITUŢIA ROMÂNIEI













*****************************************************************************

DESPRE CONSTITUŢIA ROMÂNIEI

CLASA A X-A E,

GRUP.SCOLAR.”C.A.ROSETTI”,CONSTANTA

DIRIGINTE: PROFESOR DOINA RUSU

Normele juridice au fost reglementate din cele mai vechi timpuri pentru a asigura funcţionarea organismului social. Prin dezvoltarea comunităţilor umane s-au multiplicat şi raporturile sociale dintre membrii care formau acele comunităţi. Pentru ca aceste raporturi să se deruleze într-un cadru organizat s-a considerat necesară normarea acelor relaţii sociale care erau recunoscute şi valorizate de majoritatea indivizilor din comunitate.

Sistemul legislativ construit de imperatorii romani a fost cel care a marcat o piatră de hotar în privinţa ierarhizării actelor normative şi a consacrat pentru totdeauna faptul că valorile fundamentale pentru o societate, trebuie consacrate prin acte normative cu putere juridică supremă, iar relaţiile sociale ce decurg din valorile fundamentale trebuie reglementate prin acte normative cu putere juridică inferioară.

Orice sistem legislativ, inclusiv cel românesc, are la bază un set de valori fundamentale recunoscute ca atare de cetăţenii statului şi cărora acestora trebuie să li se supună.

Setul de valori fundamentale include drepturile şi libertăţile fundamentale ale omului, modul de organizare şi funcţionare a instituţiilor politice ale statului ( puterile statului) cât şi modul de organizare şi funcţionare al economiei naţionale.

Acest set de valori fundamentale este normat prin legea fundamentală care poartă denumirea de Constituţie.

Constituţia României a apărut mult mai târziu decât constituţiile din ţările vest-europene datorita faptului că epoca modernă, caracterizată prin dezvoltare tehnică, economică, socială şi culturală, a început în România mult mai târziu faţă de alte ţări precum Olanda, Anglia, Franţa sau Italia.

Radacinile adoptării unui act de natură constituţională (care să consacre normativ valori sociale fundamentale) se regăsesc în Regulamentele Organice adoptate în Ţara Românească şi Moldova, ulterior semnării Tratatului de Pace de la Adrianopol-1829.

Primul act cu caracter constituţional este Statutul Dezvoltător al Convenţiei de la Paris

cunoscut sub denumirea de Statutul lui Cuza.

Prin această reglementare se încredinţau puterile statului domnitorului şi parlamentului (reprezentaţa naţională) care avea o structură bicamerală. Statutul lui Cuza mai cuprinde reglementări privitoare la formarea, organizarea şi funcţionarea reprezentaţiei naţionale, reguli privitoare la elaborarea legilor, unele reguli privind Guvernul, obligaţia funcţionarilor publici de a presta jurământul de credinţă Constituţiei, legilor şi domnitorului.

În anul 1866 se adoptă prima Constituţie a României având ca inspiraţie prevederile Constituţiei belgiene, considerată cea mai modernă lege de la acea vreme. Aceasta reglementa cele mai importante relaţii sociale, sistematizarea normelor realizându-se pe mai multe titluri şi anume: Despre teritoriul României (I), Despre drepturile românilor (II), Despre puterile statului (III), Despre finanţe (IV), Despre puterea armată (V), Dispoziţiuni generale (VI), Despre revizuirea Constituţiei (VII). Pentru a reţine aspectul de act normativ fundamental amintim doar reglementarea cuprinsă în primul articol: "Principatele Unite Române constituie un singur stat indivizibil, sub denumirea de România".

Ulterior au mai fost adoptate Constituţii în 1923 ( când a fost consacrat pentru prima dată votul egal şi universal, eliminându-se discriminările în exercitarea drepturilor politice de către cetăţeni), în 1938, în 1948 şi în 1991 în principiile consacrate de Constituţie.

Constituţia adoptată în 1991, modificată în 2003, a fost creată pentru a se consacra trecerea de la sistemul comunist la organizarea de tip democratic a acestuia după 1989. În acest sens Parlamentul, ales democratic în anul 1990, s-a constituit ca Adunare Constituantă şi a numit o comisie specială pentru elaborarea proiectului de Constituţie. Constituţia a fost adoptată de Parlament în 21 noiembrie şi aprobată prin referendum popular în data de 8 decembrie 1991. Constituţia României este legea fundamentală a statului român, formată din norme juridice, învestite cu forţă juridică supremă şi care reglementează acele relaţii sociale fundamentale care sunt esenţiale pentru instaurarea, menţinerea şi exercitarea puterii politce a cetăţenilor.

Conţinutul normativ al Constituţiei este structurat din punct de vedere juridic în 152 de

articole care sunt grupate în 7 titluri, unele având capitole şi secţiuni.

Primul titlu, denumit Principii generale, cuprinde norme referitoare la structura unitară a statului, la forma sa republicană de guvernământ. În legătură cu teritoriul, acesta este organizat administrativ în comune, oraşe şi judeţe. În acest titlul există dispoziţii privitoare la partidele politice şi la sindicate, la dobândirea şi pierderea cetăţeniei române.

Cel de-al doilea titlu consacră drepturile şi libertăţile fundamentale ale omului care include drepturile şi libertăţile socilale economice, drepturile şi libertăţile social politice şi îndatoririle fundamentale.

Titlul trei conţine reglementări referitoare la Parlament, Preşedintele României, Guvern, Administraţia Publică şi Autoritatea Judecătorească. Este de evidenţiat că legiuitorul a utilizat termenul de “autoritate" pentru a înlocui consacratul termen de "putere".

Cel de-al patrulea titlu priveşte economia şi finanţele şi cuprinde norme referioare la economie, proprietate, sistemul fiscal, bugetul public naţional, impozitele şi taxele, Curtea de Conturi.

Titlul V priveşte modul de organizare şi funcţionare al Curţii Constituţionale.

Titlul VI se referă la revizuirea Constituţiei stipulând procedura revizuirii şi limitele sale,

conturând caracterul rigid al Constituţiei.

Ultimul titlu (VII) cuprinde regulile referitoare la intrarea în vigoare a Constituţiei, conflictul temporar de legi şi altele.

Conceptul De Lege

Pentru ca statul să funcţioneze, ceea ce înseamnă că se exercită puterea politică a cetăţenilor, este necesar ca valorile sociale să aibă o exprimare practică, adică să se regăsească în relaţiile sociale care se dezvoltă între cetăţeni. Relaţiile sociale derivând din valori sociale fundamentale, se dezvoltă având ca temei legea, act juridic adoptat de parlamentari-reprezentaţii cetăţenilor-şi care are o forţă juridică inferioară constituţiei.

Legea este actul normativ, format din norme juridice, investite cu forţă juridică inferioară constituţiei însă superioară celorlalte norme juridice şi care reglementează relaţii sociale ce decurg din valorile sociale fundamentale (ex. Legea îvăţământului care reprezintă o aplicare a valorii sociale constând în dreptul fundamental al educaţiei fiecărui individ).

Există trei tipuri de legi:

• legi constituţionale
• legi organice
• legi ordinare.

a) Legile constituţionale sunt cele care privesc revizuirea Constituţiei. După adoptarea ei de către Parlament, se supune aprobării cetăţenilor, prin referendum,la intrarea în vigoare devine parte integrantă a Constituţiei.

b) Legile organice sunt cele adoptate de Parlament în domeniile de importanţă vitală pentru funcţionarea statului şi care sunt strict enumerate în art.72 alin.3 din Constituţie. Astfel prin lege organică se reglementează:

• sistemul electoral,
• organizarea şi funcţionarea partidelor politice,
• organizarea şi desfăşurarea referendumului,
• organizarea Guvernului şi a Consilului Suprem de Apărare al Ţării,
• regimul stării de asediu şi al celui de urgenţă,
• infracţiunile, pedepsele şi regimul de executare a acestora,
• acordarea amnistiei sau a graţierii colective,

• organizarea şi fincţionarea Consilului Superior al Magistaturii, a instanţelor judecătoreşti,

a Ministerului Public şi a Curţii de Conturi,
• statutul funcţionarilor publici,
• contenciosul administrativ,

• regimul juridic general al proprietăţii şi moştenirii,
• regimul general privind raporturile de muncă, sindicatele şi protecţia socială,
• organizarea generală a învăţământului,
• regimul general al cultelor,

• oraganizarea administraţiei locale, a teritorului, precum şi regimul general privind

autonomia locală,
• modul de stabilire a zonelor economice exclusive,
• celelalte domenii pentru care, în Constituţie, se prevede adoptarea de legi ordinare.

Legea organică se adoptă prin votul majorităţii membrilor fiecărei camere legislative-

Camera Deputaţilor şi Camera Senatului.

c) Legea ordinară- este adoptată de Parlament pentru a reglementa domenii sociale de

importanţă mai redusă pentru care nu este necesară adoptarea unei legi organice.

Legea ordinară se adoptă cu votul majorităţii membrilor prezenţi la şedinţa fiecărei camere legislative.

Hotărârea de guvern

Legea, ca act normativ al Parlamentului, are forţă juridică în ceea ce priveşte hotărârile date de Guvern, deoarece emană de la reprezentaţii cetăţenilor, parlamentarilor aleşi prin vot universal, direct, secret şi liber exprimat în timp ce hotărârile de guvern sunt adoptate de un organ investit să execute legea.

Din cele prezentate se reliefează că o hotărâre poate fi emisă numai în aplicarea legilor, prin acestea neputându-se completa sau modifica legi. Hotărârea de Guvern se adoptă cu votul majorităţii miniştrilor care alcătuiesc Guvernul României.

Ordine-instrucţiuni sau precizări

Sunt acte cu forţă juridică inferioară hotărârilor de Guvern, emise de către miniştrii pentru a preciza anumite proceduri sau norme din domeniul său de activitate.

Hotărâri ale Consiliilor Locale şi Consiliilor Judeţene

Sunt acte cu caracter normativ, inferioare ca forţă juridică hotărârilor de Guvern, adoptate de autorităţile publice locale deliberative, fie obligatorii pe întrega unitate adminstrativ- teritorială, după aducera la cunoştinţa cetăţenilor, fie cu caracter individual (care produc efecte juridice mai restrânse, numai faţă de cei interesaţi, de la data comunicării actului către aceştia). Ex: hotărâre a Consiliului Judeţean privind concesionarea unui teren către o persoană fizică .

Aşadar, întegul sistem normativ existent la ora actuală în România, izvorăşte din

principiile consacrate de Constituţie, care este fundamentul acestui sistem.

ABOUT THE CONSTITUTION OF ROMANIA

CLASS XA E

GRUP.SCOLAR. "CAROSETTI" CONSTANTA

Engineer: TEACHER DOINA RUSU

Legal rules have been covered from ancient times to ensure operation of the office. The development of human communities have multiplied and forming social relationships between members of those communities. For these relationships to take place in an organized framework was considered necessary standardization of those social relations that were recognized and valued by most individuals in the community.

Legal system was built by the Romans imperatorii which marked a milestone in the hierarchy of legal norms and values enshrined forever that fundamental to a society, have rules and regulations established by the supreme legal power and social relations arising from fundamental values to be covered by legally binding regulations below.

Any legal system, including the Romanian one is based on a set of core values recognized as such by the state and that their citizens must obey.

The set of core values include human rights and fundamental freedoms, the organization and functioning of political institutions of the state (state powers) and the organization and functioning of the national economy.

This set of fundamental values is normalized by the fundamental law called the Constitution.

Constitution came much later than the constitutions of Western European countries due to the fact that modernity is characterized by technical development, economic, social and cultural, in Romania started much later than other countries such as Holland, England, France or Italy .

Roots of adopting a constitutional act (which enshrines the fundamental normative social values) are found in the Organic adopted Romanian and Moldovan Land, after the signing of the Peace Treaty of Adrianople, 1829. The first constitutional document is the Statute's Developing Paris Convention known as the Statute of Cuza.

This state regulatory powers entrusted to the ruler and parliament (national representatives) that have a bicameral structure. Cuza's Statute also includes provisions concerning the formation, organization and functioning of the performance of national rules on drawing up laws, some rules on government, public servants must provide the oath of allegiance to the Constitution, laws and ruler.

In 1866 it adopted the first Constitution of Romania with the inspiration of the Belgian Constitution, considered the most modern law at that time. The most important social relationships regulate, systematize procedures being performed on several titles, namely: About Romania (I), rights of Romanians (II), about the powers of the state (III), About Finance (IV), the military power (V), General Provisions (VI), On the revision of the Constitution (VII). To retain the appearance of fundamental legislation contained regulations mention only the first article: 'Romanian United Principalities constitutes one indivisible state, as in Romania. "

Later Constitution were adopted in 1923 (when it was first established universal and equal vote, eliminating discrimination in the exercise of political rights by citizens), in 1938, 1948 and 1991 in the principles enshrined in the Constitution.

The Constitution adopted in 1991, as amended in 2003, was created to establish transition from communist to democratic organization of its kind since 1989. In this respect the Parliament, democratically elected in 1990, the Constituent Assembly was formed and appointed a special committee drafting the constitution. The Constitution was adopted by Parliament on November 21 and approved by popular referendum on December 8, 1991. Constitution is the fundamental law of the Romanian state, consisting of legal rules, legally vested with the supreme and governing those fundamental social relations that are essential for the establishment, maintenance and exercise of power politce citizens.

Normative content of the Constitution is legally structured in 152 articles are grouped into seven titles, some of chapters and sections.

The first title, called General Principles, contains rules relating to the unitary structure of the state, the republican form of government. In connection with the territory, it is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties. In this title there are provisions relating to political parties and trade unions, the acquisition and loss of Romanian citizenship.

The second title enshrines human rights and fundamental freedoms including the rights and freedoms socilale economic, social and political rights and freedoms and fundamental duties.

Title contains three provisions relating to Parliament, President of Romania, Government, Public Administration and Judiciary Authority. It is shown that the legislature used the term "authority" to replace the term consacratul 'power'.

The fourth title of the economy and finances, and includes rules refer to the economy, property tax system, government budget, taxes and fees, the Court of Auditors.

Title V concerning the organization and functioning of the Constitutional Court.

Title VI refers to the review and revision of the Constitution stipulating the procedure to its limits, drawing the rigid nature of the Constitution.

Last title (VII) contains rules regarding the entry into force of the Constitution, laws and other temporary conflict.

To retain the appearance of fundamental legislation contained regulations mention only the first article: 'Romanian United Principalities constitutes one indivisible state, as in Romania. "

Later Constitution were adopted in 1923 (when it was first established universal and equal vote, eliminating discrimination in the exercise of political rights by citizens), in 1938, 1948 and 1991 in the principles enshrined in the Constitution.

The Constitution adopted in 1991, as amended in 2003, was created to establish transition from communist to democratic organization of its kind since 1989. In this respect the Parliament, democratically elected in 1990, the Constituent Assembly was formed and appointed a special committee drafting the constitution. The Constitution was adopted by Parliament on November 21 and approved by popular referendum on December 8, 1991. Constitution is the fundamental law of the Romanian state, consisting of legal rules, legally vested with the supreme and governing those fundamental social relations that are essential for the establishment, maintenance and exercise of power politce citizens.

Normative content of the Constitution is legally structured in 152 articles are grouped into seven titles, some of chapters and sections.

The first title, called General Principles, contains rules relating to the unitary structure of the state, the republican form of government. In connection with the territory, it is organized administratively into communes, towns and counties. In this title there are provisions relating to political parties and trade unions, the acquisition and loss of Romanian citizenship.

The second title enshrines human rights and fundamental freedoms including the rights and freedoms socilale economic, social and political rights and freedoms and fundamental duties.

Title contains three provisions relating to Parliament, President of Romania, Government, Public Administration and Judiciary Authority. It is shown that the legislature used the term "authority" to replace the term consacratul 'power'.

The fourth title of the economy and finances, and includes rules refer to the economy, property tax system, government budget, taxes and fees, the Court of Auditors.

Title V concerning the organization and functioning of the Constitutional Court.

Title VI refers to the review and revision of the Constitution stipulating the procedure to its limits, drawing the rigid nature of the Constitution.

Last title (VII) contains rules regarding the entry into force of the Constitution, laws and other temporary conflict.

The concept of the law for state functions, which means that citizens exercise political power, social values need to be a practical expression, that is to be found in social relations that develop between people. Social relations arising from fundamental social values are emerging as a theme with the law, legal act adopted by parliamentarians, representatives of citizens, and having a lower legal force of the constitution.

Law is the normative act, consisting of legal rules, legally vested with the constitution but the upper lower legal and other rules governing social relations arising from fundamental social values (eg law enforcement îvăţământului which represents the social value of education consisting of a fundamental right each individual).

There are three types of laws:

-constitutional law

- ordinary laws

-organic laws.

a) Constitutional laws are those relating to constitutional revision. After its adoption by Parliament, citizens are subject to approval by referendum, the entry into force is an integral part of the Constitution.

b) Organic laws are those adopted by Parliament in matters of vital importance for the functioning of the state and are strictly listed in article 72 paragraph 3 of the Constitution. This organic law shall regulate: • electoral system, • the organization and functioning of political parties, organization and holding of referendum •, • organization of the Government and Council of the Country's Supreme Defence, • the state of siege and of the emergency, • offenses sentences and the enforcement thereof, • the granting of amnesty or collective pardon, • Superior organization and fincţionarea Magistaturii council, the courts, the Public Prosecutor and the Court of Auditors, Staff • public • administrative court, the legal • of private property and inheritance • General rules on employment relations, trade unions and social protection, • the general organization of education, the general regime of cults •, • oraganizarea local government, of the territorial and general rules on local autonomy, • how to establishing exclusive economic zones, • other fields, for which the Constitution provides that ordinary laws.

Organic Law is adopted by a majority of each legislative chambers, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate Chamber.

c) ordinary-law is adopted by Parliament to regulate the social areas of lesser importance which is not necessary to adopt an organic law.

Ordinary law shall be adopted by a majority vote of members present at the meeting each legislative chambers.

Government Decision Act, legislation that Parliament has legal force in relation to orders made by the Government, as adopted by the representatives of citizens, parliamentarians elected by universal, direct, secret and freely expressed while government decisions are taken invested by a body to enforce the law.

Of those listed are highlights that a decision may be issued only in law enforcement, thereby not being able to complete or amend laws. Government decision is taken by ministers who make up the majority of the Romanian Government.

Order-instructions or explanations are lower rulings legally binding acts of the Government, issued by ministers to clarify some procedures or rules in its field.

Order-instructions or explanations

They are acts which are legally inferior decisions by the Government, issued by ministers to clarify some procedures or rules in its field.

Decisions of Local Councils and District Councils

Are normative acts, legally binding decisions that lower Government, local authorities adopted deliberative or administratively binding on the entire territorial unit, after informing the citizens or of individual (smaller producing legal effects, only to those interested in the date of the document to them). Ex County Council decision on the granting of land by an individual.

So întegul existing regulatory system currently in Romania, stems from

principles enshrined in the Constitution, which is the foundation of this system.